Written by: - Ahmad Makled
Doctor of Philosophy in Education, Art Education
In the second article in the Professional Art Professional series, we must clarify some concepts related to factors affecting design and technical values that are required in it where the designer defines those concepts as a basis for building any artistic work and formulating it in an organized image through an understanding of what he wants and how to implement it, and in the beginning it must To know what factors influence the design, and that point can be clarified as follows: -
- The type of material used for implementation, performance skills, or techniques associated with design implementation. The more that the designer knows about the capabilities of raw materials and methods of handling them, this leads to an increase in his imagination ideas for implementation and his ability to build a visualization of the final shape of the design.
- The position in which the product artwork will be employed. As most of the manufactured things are designed to serve a specific job, and according to the job, the appropriate material for implementation varies and the shape varies. Therefore, the designer must study the requirements of the product function and choose the appropriate material for formation in order to meet the goal produced for it.
- The topic that design deals with through design elements and related forms. It is one of the strong influences in building the artwork, because it inspires shapes, colors and superficial values related to the same issue of implementing the artwork.
We must know that the design stage takes place in two stages: -
- The stage of designing the print item in a way that is compatible with the implementation technique and what it includes in the performance methods and methods of implementation, raw materials and tools where the design of the item differs according to the method of implementation, for example, the design of the flower item differs when implemented with the use of flat expression methods through drawing and photographing in an attempt to stereotype through Sculpture, although the term is one, but the method of implementation differs.
- The second stage relates to the design of the artwork in its final form according to its nature or use, as the design of women's clothing shapes differs from the design of children's clothes from the design of a greeting card ... etc., which requires the designer to have a visualization of the final form after the completion of the implementation.
The technical values that are required in the technical work are the technical values, or what is known as the unit of formative formation, in building any technical design through designing vocabulary and employing them in building fully-designed technical designs which leads to the success of the technical work that innovation and renewal has taken as its goal, and this of course requires knowledge Complete the foundations of the design and its components, which are considered one of the most important conditions for success in implementation.
The design elements are considered one of the most important elements in the production of a distinctive artwork. They consist of various elements and differ according to the design shape and its elements are: -
- The point is the simplest design element, and most people tend to see it as a circular shape, it does not show any direction if used alone.
- Line: is the effect resulting from moving a point in a path, or it is the succession of a group of adjacent points, and it is an important design element in building artwork and is found in nature in many and varied forms, including simple lines "straight, non-straight", and complex lines "based on a line Straight, based on a non-straight line, combining them ", and there are those who divide their forms as follows: A line (horizontal - vertical - curved - arc - streamlined - diagonal - refractive - parallel - perpendicular)
Area: It may be a "prime area" of regular geometric shapes such as square, equilateral, or circle. The "multiple spaces" in a designer artwork vary in, "their number." That is, in the number of areas that fall within the boundaries of the design, “their size”, i.e. small or large areas in relation to each other and in relation to the total areas of the technical work, its “location”, i.e. the location of the spaces in relation to the boundaries of the technical framework and its location in relation to others, its “shape”, that is, the shape of the spaces, the space may It is in a geometrical form, and it may be the result of merging more than one geometric shape with some experimentation, modification, deletion and addition to produce a space of a special nature.
- Size: It is determined by the amount of space it occupies from the vacuum, and it is possible to produce initial vacuum bodies such as the square of the repetition of the equilateral triangle four times. Binary shapes can also be reached as a result of combining a plastic flat such as a square and a triangle to create a cone.
- Texture: denotes the distinctive characteristic of the surface properties of materials according to the internal and external components and by arranging their particles and their construction systems in a way in which the general features of surfaces become clear: they are in terms of degree "smooth, rough, regular, irregular", type-specific Real, illusory, "real touches" are what we can perceive from the sense of touch and sight due to the variation of their surface appearance. "And thumby touches" are those that can be perceived by the sense of sight without being able to distinguish them by touch. This type is known as two-dimensional texture.
- Color: This is the physiological effect caused by the retina, whether as a result of colored dyeing or by colored light. It has three properties:
1- The color nacelle: means the origin of the color, which distinguishes it and makes us differentiate between one color and another.
2- Color value: means the degree of color, which indicates whether the color is light or dark.
3- Chromium: means the color purity or its mixing ratio in neutral colors "white, gray, black".
The color is divided into:
A- Primary (primary) colors: (red - yellow - blue).
B- Secondary colors: are the colors that result from mixing any two primary colors (purple, orange, green).
C- Triple colors: are the colors that result from mixing a primary color with a secondary color.
D - neutral colors: which are (degrees of brown - degrees of gray).
- Space: It is the depth in design by suggesting that there is a third imaginary dimension invented by the designer.
The third axis is the foundations of design, which includes the following: -
Unity: It is the interconnectedness of the parts of the artwork, so that the relationships that can be perceived through its unity in a coherent and harmonious system, and with it all the details are subject to one approach.
- Rhythm: - It is the organization of the separations between points, lines, areas, shapes, colors, organizing the directions of the elements of the artwork, and expresses the movement and is achieved by repeating the shapes without a mechanism and by using the technical elements.
- Repetition: - The types of iterations vary according to the directions that the unit takes in its proximity and succession, whether at equal distances or dimensions, or irregular, but they differ in their conditions, and they can be summarized as follows: -
- Regular (regular) repetition: in which the decorative units are adjacent to a steady and uniform position in the vertical direction or in the horizontal direction.
- Reverse repetition: - In which the units are adjacent in different positions in the direction of the horizontals right and left or in the vertical direction up and down or in an oblique direction.
- Reproductive Repetition: - This type of iterations is evident in some traditional geometric shapes, which are produced through their overlapping together in the reproduction of atypical geometric shapes as in the stellar dish in Islamic art.
- Mutual repetition: - Exchange means participation more than one decorative unit and its shape varies and its area may vary or its colors vary in juxtaposition and succession one after another and this type of iterations is used frequently in the extended or circular ribbon repetitions.
- Falling iteration: It includes the decorative configurations of the units that are adjacent and alternating with falling patterns, either horizontally or vertically, such as building blocks.
- Gradual repetition: - and in it a single element arises small and medium and large and grows from small to large with the same characteristics and characteristics of the small element in form and value except for one thing that its size varies from small to moderate to old and from the features of this type it is more dynamic and dynamic, so it is It is useful to use to suggest depth on the surface of the image, which is why it is used in theater backgrounds and display windows.
Balance: shown by arranging the elements in a way that allows the viewer to feel a sense of stability and balance, and through a balance between the elements, colors, and values.
- Proportion or harmony: - They are the most important characteristics of natural formations and appear clear in the form of tree branches as an example, and through the size, number of parts, and degrees of inclination of trunks and branches that form shapes of trees. These ratios, in turn, create a rhythm that is repeated for shapes, sizes, and organizations.
- Sovereignty: - Some forms acquire the characteristic of sovereignty, others are the characteristic of dependency, and the center of sovereignty in artistic work is the nucleus around which the work is built. There are many means by which the center of sovereignty can be strengthened:
In the end, I hope to be well presented and I hope that you will continue your effective follow-up, coming from this important series for everyone who wants to learn and acquire artistic work skills and how any person becomes an artist project who owns his artistic tools and has the skills that he assigns to formulate artistic and creative works competing with professionals with different vision and methods of implementation Multiple and my following articles will relate to the practical implementation of artworks and multiple technologies, but gradually from start to professional, and I promise you that you will get distinguished education and experiences that you will only find through specialists and with high amounts if they are within workshops or paid courses and let them be Glory to what you want to be, and our next date will be how to draw a portrait .... Wait for us in the next.