New York City authorities are already preparing for the expected rise in sea level from climate change, amid the prospects that the costs of adapting to a warmer and humid world will be enormous.
Protective sand barriers have emerged in Manhattan and Brooklyn, where artificial sand dunes have been built on most open beaches, as New York seeks to take the lead in adapting to climate change.
New Yorkers may have realized the devastation that extreme weather could bring after Hurricane Sandy in 2012 killed 44 people and damaged $ 19 billion (17 billion euros) in damage.
But getting away from beaches seems unreasonable in such a densely populated place where property prices are too high.
Instead, the city has given priority to fortifying its 850-km beach, while water is expected to rise to about 1.8 meters by 2100, amid an increased risk of severe storms.
In two areas most affected by Hurricane Sandy, the Rockaway Peninsula in Queens (southeast) and Staten Island in the far south of the city, sand dunes were erected along a 16-kilometer stretch, while millions of tons of sand were dumped on the beaches of
Rockaway and Coney Island in Brooklyn. .
Billions of dollars were spent to protect the electricity infrastructure and the old rail network in the city of 8.5 million people, as well as visitors and frequent visitors.
Walls of sand-filled containers appeared around the city, especially in Brooklyn and near Wall Street in Manhattan. The 1.2-meter-high barriers are a temporary solution and are expected to last for five years until longer-term measures are taken to protect New York's
historic and financial heartland.